Commit dee38963 authored by arw's avatar arw
Browse files

howto erweitert um templates, benutzerzertifikate, hpkp-warnung

parent a90f7c49
......@@ -22,8 +22,16 @@ pwgen -s 15 | tee ${TARGET}.pin
# .csr auf der Rechenzentrums-CA-Webseite hochladen, PIN angeben (wird fuer Widerruf gebraucht)
```
[Server-Konfigurations-Vorlage](config-template.cnf)
[RRZE-CA-Klickibunti](https://pki.pca.dfn.de/uni-erlangen-nuernberg-ca/pub/)
## Benutzer-Zertifikat
Geht genauso wie ein Serverzertifikat oben. Hochladen auch ueber das o.g.
Serverzertifikats-Formular, als Zertifikatsprofile "User" angeben. Als Konfigurationstemplate folgendes verwenden:
[Benutzer-Konfigurations-Vorlage](config-template-user.cnf)
# Key-Pinning
*ab hier nur fuer Leute, die das auch wirklich brauchen*
......@@ -81,6 +89,8 @@ _443._tcp.example.com. IN TLSA 0 0 1 989a3aaa5862dede9b42d6f05eabd639a60f5d526c4
## HTTPS Public Key Pinning (HPKP)
*Achtung: HPKP ist riskant und es ist sehr leicht moeglich das so kaputtzukonfigurieren, dass ein Hostname auf lange Zeit unbenutzbar "verseucht" ist. Finger weg, ausser du weisst ganz genau was du tust.*
Apache-Config sollte irgendwie ungefaehr wie folgt aussehen:
```
......@@ -95,7 +105,7 @@ Apache-Config sollte irgendwie ungefaehr wie folgt aussehen:
- includeSubDomains kann man angeben (mit `;` getrennt nach `max-age`), ist aber meistens eine schlechte Idee, da es hierarchisch weiter unten stehende Webseiten kaputtmacht.
- max-age sollte eigentlich laenger 3600s sein. Aber, wenn mal ein Schluessel
kompromittiert wurde, koennte ein zu langes max-age Benutzer aussperren.
Man sollte daher mehrere Pins angeben und Reserve-Schluessel zu haben. Diese
Man muss daher mehrere Pins angeben und Reserve-Schluessel zu haben. Diese
erzeugt man wie folgt:
```
......@@ -103,7 +113,7 @@ openssl genrsa -out ${TARGET}.key.reserve-rsa4096 4096
openssl rsa -in ${TARGET}.key.reserve-rsa4096 -outform der -pubout | openssl dgst -sha256 -binary | openssl enc -base64
```
Falls das eigentliche Zertifikat dann mal kompromittiert wird kann man den Reserve-Schluessel um wie ganz oben beschrieben einen CSR zu erzeugen verwenden.
Falls das eigentliche Zertifikat dann mal kompromittiert wird kann man den Reserve-Schluessel um wie ganz oben beschrieben einen CSR zu erzeugen verwenden. Browser akzeptieren HPKP nur, wenn man mindestens zwei Pins setzt.
- Als Absicherung gegen diverse Versionen der kommenden Cryptocalypse kann
man noch andere Typen dazuerzeugen:
......@@ -120,4 +130,4 @@ openssl ecparam -out ${TARGET}.key.reserve-ecdsa-brainpoolP384t1 -name brainpool
# digests dazu:
openssl pkey -in ${TARGET}.key.reserve-ecdsa-prime256v1 -outform der -pubout | openssl dgst -sha256 -binary | openssl enc -base64
openssl pkey -in ${TARGET}.key.reserve-ecdsa-brainpoolP384t1 -outform der -pubout | openssl dgst -sha256 -binary | openssl enc -base64
```
\ No newline at end of file
```
[ req ]
default_bits = 2048
distinguished_name = req_DN
string_mask = nombstr
req_extensions = v3_req
x509_extensions = v3_req
[ req_DN ]
countryName = "1. Country Name (2 letter code)"
countryName_default = DE
countryName_min = 2
countryName_max = 2
stateOrProvinceName = "2. State or Province Name (full name) "
stateOrProvinceName_default = Bayern
localityName = "3. Locality Name (eg, city) "
localityName_default = Erlangen
0.organizationName = "4. Organization Name (eg, company) "
0.organizationName_default = Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg
commonName = "6. Common Name (eg, CA name) "
commonName_max = 64
# FIXME: Hier Namen einsetzen:
commonName_default = "Friedrich Ungueltiger-Name-Bitte-Ersetzen-Maier"
[ v3_req ]
subjectAltName=@SUBJ
[SUBJ]
# FIXME: Hier Liste der Email-Addressen angeben, fortlaufend ab 0 nummeriert, keine Luecken
# Addressen muessen alle an der Uni sein und natuerlich der oben genannten Person gehoeren
email.0=friedrich.ungueltiger-name-bitte-ersetzen-mayer@fau.de
email.1=praesident@fau.de
email.2=root@cs.fau.de
email.3=nonexistent@noreply.fau.de
#...
#
# OpenSSL example configuration file.
# This is mostly being used for generation of certificate requests.
#
# This definition stops the following lines choking if HOME isn't
# defined.
HOME = .
RANDFILE = $ENV::HOME/.rnd
# Extra OBJECT IDENTIFIER info:
#oid_file = $ENV::HOME/.oid
oid_section = new_oids
# To use this configuration file with the "-extfile" option of the
# "openssl x509" utility, name here the section containing the
# X.509v3 extensions to use:
# extensions =
# (Alternatively, use a configuration file that has only
# X.509v3 extensions in its main [= default] section.)
[ new_oids ]
# We can add new OIDs in here for use by 'ca', 'req' and 'ts'.
# Add a simple OID like this:
# testoid1=1.2.3.4
# Or use config file substitution like this:
# testoid2=${testoid1}.5.6
# Policies used by the TSA examples.
tsa_policy1 = 1.2.3.4.1
tsa_policy2 = 1.2.3.4.5.6
tsa_policy3 = 1.2.3.4.5.7
####################################################################
[ ca ]
default_ca = CA_default # The default ca section
####################################################################
[ CA_default ]
dir = ./demoCA # Where everything is kept
certs = $dir/certs # Where the issued certs are kept
crl_dir = $dir/crl # Where the issued crl are kept
database = $dir/index.txt # database index file.
#unique_subject = no # Set to 'no' to allow creation of
# several ctificates with same subject.
new_certs_dir = $dir/newcerts # default place for new certs.
certificate = $dir/cacert.pem # The CA certificate
serial = $dir/serial # The current serial number
crlnumber = $dir/crlnumber # the current crl number
# must be commented out to leave a V1 CRL
crl = $dir/crl.pem # The current CRL
private_key = $dir/private/cakey.pem# The private key
RANDFILE = $dir/private/.rand # private random number file
x509_extensions = usr_cert # The extentions to add to the cert
# Comment out the following two lines for the "traditional"
# (and highly broken) format.
name_opt = ca_default # Subject Name options
cert_opt = ca_default # Certificate field options
# Extension copying option: use with caution.
# copy_extensions = copy
# Extensions to add to a CRL. Note: Netscape communicator chokes on V2 CRLs
# so this is commented out by default to leave a V1 CRL.
# crlnumber must also be commented out to leave a V1 CRL.
# crl_extensions = crl_ext
default_days = 365 # how long to certify for
default_crl_days= 30 # how long before next CRL
default_md = default # use public key default MD
preserve = no # keep passed DN ordering
# A few difference way of specifying how similar the request should look
# For type CA, the listed attributes must be the same, and the optional
# and supplied fields are just that :-)
policy = policy_match
# For the CA policy
[ policy_match ]
countryName = match
stateOrProvinceName = match
organizationName = match
organizationalUnitName = optional
commonName = supplied
emailAddress = optional
# For the 'anything' policy
# At this point in time, you must list all acceptable 'object'
# types.
[ policy_anything ]
countryName = optional
stateOrProvinceName = optional
localityName = optional
organizationName = optional
organizationalUnitName = optional
commonName = supplied
emailAddress = optional
####################################################################
[ req ]
default_bits = 4096
default_keyfile = privkey.pem
distinguished_name = req_distinguished_name
attributes = req_attributes
x509_extensions = v3_ca # The extentions to add to the self signed cert
# Passwords for private keys if not present they will be prompted for
# input_password = secret
# output_password = secret
# This sets a mask for permitted string types. There are several options.
# default: PrintableString, T61String, BMPString.
# pkix : PrintableString, BMPString (PKIX recommendation before 2004)
# utf8only: only UTF8Strings (PKIX recommendation after 2004).
# nombstr : PrintableString, T61String (no BMPStrings or UTF8Strings).
# MASK:XXXX a literal mask value.
# WARNING: ancient versions of Netscape crash on BMPStrings or UTF8Strings.
string_mask = utf8only
req_extensions = v3_req # The extensions to add to a certificate request
[ req_distinguished_name ]
countryName = Country Name (2 letter code)
countryName_default = DE
countryName_min = 2
countryName_max = 2
## braucht man, sagt des RRZE
stateOrProvinceName = State or Province Name (full name)
stateOrProvinceName_default = Bayern
localityName = Locality Name (eg, city)
localityName_default = Erlangen
0.organizationName = Organization Name (eg, company)
0.organizationName_default = Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg
# we can do this but it is not needed normally :-)
#1.organizationName = Second Organization Name (eg, company)
#1.organizationName_default = World Wide Web Pty Ltd
0.organizationalUnitName = Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)
0.organizationalUnitName_default = Department Astrologie und Homöopathie
1.organizationalUnitName = Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)
1.organizationalUnitName_default = Lehrstuhl für Wasseradern und Erdstrahlung
2.organizationalUnitName = Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)
2.organizationalUnitName_default = FIXME
commonName = common name
# FIXME: muss einer der Hostnamen des fraglichen Systems sein, sollte unten in den alt_names auch
# als erstes drinstehen
commonName_default = FIXME.fau.de
# SET-ex3 = SET extension number 3
[ req_attributes ]
challengePassword = A challenge password
challengePassword_min = 4
challengePassword_max = 20
unstructuredName = An optional company name
[ usr_cert ]
# These extensions are added when 'ca' signs a request.
# This goes against PKIX guidelines but some CAs do it and some software
# requires this to avoid interpreting an end user certificate as a CA.
basicConstraints=CA:FALSE
# Here are some examples of the usage of nsCertType. If it is omitted
# the certificate can be used for anything *except* object signing.
# This is OK for an SSL server.
# nsCertType = server
# For an object signing certificate this would be used.
# nsCertType = objsign
# For normal client use this is typical
# nsCertType = client, email
# and for everything including object signing:
# nsCertType = client, email, objsign
# This is typical in keyUsage for a client certificate.
# keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
# This will be displayed in Netscape's comment listbox.
nsComment = "OpenSSL Generated Certificate"
# PKIX recommendations harmless if included in all certificates.
subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer
# This stuff is for subjectAltName and issuerAltname.
# Import the email address.
# subjectAltName=email:copy
# An alternative to produce certificates that aren't
# deprecated according to PKIX.
# subjectAltName=email:move
# Copy subject details
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy
#nsCaRevocationUrl = http://www.domain.dom/ca-crl.pem
#nsBaseUrl
#nsRevocationUrl
#nsRenewalUrl
#nsCaPolicyUrl
#nsSslServerName
# This is required for TSA certificates.
# extendedKeyUsage = critical,timeStamping
[ v3_req ]
# Extensions to add to a certificate request
basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
subjectAltName = @alt_names
[alt_names]
# FIXME: Alle noetigen Hostnamen eintragen. Nummerierung fortlaufend und lueckenlos. Immer FQDN.
# Varianten ala 'mit und ohne www.', verwendete CNAMEs und fau.de/uni-erlangen.de nicht vergessen.
# Nur tatsaechlich im DNS existierende Namen werden akzeptiert. IDN in Punycode/'xn--'-Notation.
DNS.1 = www.strahlung.astrologie.fau.de
DNS.2 = strahlung.astrologie.fau.de
DNS.3 = www.strahlung.astrologie.uni-erlangen.de
DNS.4 = strahlung.astrologie.uni-erlangen.de
DNS.5 = FIXME.fau.de
DNS.6 = xn--homopathie-gcb.astrologie.fau.de
# ...
[ v3_ca ]
# Extensions for a typical CA
# PKIX recommendation.
subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always,issuer
# This is what PKIX recommends but some broken software chokes on critical
# extensions.
#basicConstraints = critical,CA:true
# So we do this instead.
basicConstraints = CA:true
# Key usage: this is typical for a CA certificate. However since it will
# prevent it being used as an test self-signed certificate it is best
# left out by default.
# keyUsage = cRLSign, keyCertSign
# Some might want this also
# nsCertType = sslCA, emailCA
# Include email address in subject alt name: another PKIX recommendation
# subjectAltName=email:copy
# Copy issuer details
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy
# DER hex encoding of an extension: beware experts only!
# obj=DER:02:03
# Where 'obj' is a standard or added object
# You can even override a supported extension:
# basicConstraints= critical, DER:30:03:01:01:FF
[ crl_ext ]
# CRL extensions.
# Only issuerAltName and authorityKeyIdentifier make any sense in a CRL.
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always
[ proxy_cert_ext ]
# These extensions should be added when creating a proxy certificate
# This goes against PKIX guidelines but some CAs do it and some software
# requires this to avoid interpreting an end user certificate as a CA.
basicConstraints=CA:FALSE
# Here are some examples of the usage of nsCertType. If it is omitted
# the certificate can be used for anything *except* object signing.
# This is OK for an SSL server.
# nsCertType = server
# For an object signing certificate this would be used.
# nsCertType = objsign
# For normal client use this is typical
# nsCertType = client, email
# and for everything including object signing:
# nsCertType = client, email, objsign
# This is typical in keyUsage for a client certificate.
# keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
# This will be displayed in Netscape's comment listbox.
nsComment = "OpenSSL Generated Certificate"
# PKIX recommendations harmless if included in all certificates.
subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer
# This stuff is for subjectAltName and issuerAltname.
# Import the email address.
# subjectAltName=email:copy
# An alternative to produce certificates that aren't
# deprecated according to PKIX.
# subjectAltName=email:move
# Copy subject details
# issuerAltName=issuer:copy
#nsCaRevocationUrl = http://www.domain.dom/ca-crl.pem
#nsBaseUrl
#nsRevocationUrl
#nsRenewalUrl
#nsCaPolicyUrl
#nsSslServerName
# This really needs to be in place for it to be a proxy certificate.
proxyCertInfo=critical,language:id-ppl-anyLanguage,pathlen:3,policy:foo
####################################################################
[ tsa ]
default_tsa = tsa_config1 # the default TSA section
[ tsa_config1 ]
# These are used by the TSA reply generation only.
dir = ./demoCA # TSA root directory
serial = $dir/tsaserial # The current serial number (mandatory)
crypto_device = builtin # OpenSSL engine to use for signing
signer_cert = $dir/tsacert.pem # The TSA signing certificate
# (optional)
certs = $dir/cacert.pem # Certificate chain to include in reply
# (optional)
signer_key = $dir/private/tsakey.pem # The TSA private key (optional)
default_policy = tsa_policy1 # Policy if request did not specify it
# (optional)
other_policies = tsa_policy2, tsa_policy3 # acceptable policies (optional)
digests = md5, sha1 # Acceptable message digests (mandatory)
accuracy = secs:1, millisecs:500, microsecs:100 # (optional)
clock_precision_digits = 0 # number of digits after dot. (optional)
ordering = yes # Is ordering defined for timestamps?
# (optional, default: no)
tsa_name = yes # Must the TSA name be included in the reply?
# (optional, default: no)
ess_cert_id_chain = no # Must the ESS cert id chain be included?
# (optional, default: no)
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